Research Related Articles

Research Related Articles

Identification of metabolites from an active fraction of Cajanus cajan seeds by high resolution mass spectrometry

Author - Satishkumar S. Tekale, Bhimrao V. Jaiwal, Manohar V. Padul

Abstract - Antioxidants are important food additives which prolong food storage due to their protective effects against oxidative degradation of foods by free radicals. However, the synthetic antioxidants show toxic properties. Alternative economical and eco-friendly approach is screening of plant extract for natural antioxidants. Plant phenolics are potent antioxidants. Hence, in present study Cajanus cajan seeds were analyzed for antioxidant activity, Iron chelating activity and total phenolic content. The antioxidant activity using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) radical scavenging assay showed 71.3% inhibition and 65.8% Iron chelating activity.

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Characterization of drought- and heat-responsive microRNAs in switchgrass

Author - Vandana Hivralea, Yun Zhengb,Chandra Obul Reddy Puli ,Guru Jagadeeswarana, Kanchana Gowdua, Vijaya Gopal Kakanic, Abdelali Barakatd, Ramanjulu Sunkar

Abstract - Recent investigations revealed that microRNAs (miRNAs) play crucial roles in plant acclimation to stress conditions. Switchgrass, one of the important biofuel crop species can withstand hot and dry climates but the molecular basis of stress tolerance is relatively unknown. To identify miRNAs that are important for tolerating drought or heat, small RNAs were profiled in leaves of adult plants exposed to drought or heat. Sequence analysis enabled the identification of 29 conserved and 62 novel miRNA families. Notably, the abundances of several conserved and novel miRNAs were dramatically altered following drought or heat. Using at least one fold (log2) change as cut off, we observed that 13 conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated by both stresses, and, five and four families were specifically regulated by drought and heat, respectively.

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Molecular Umbrellas: a Novel Class of Candidate Topical Microbicides To Prevent Human Immunodeficiency Virus and Herpes Simplex Virus Infections

Rebecca Pellett Madan,Pedro M. M. Mesquita,,Natalia Cheshenko, Bingwen Jing, Vikas Shende,Esmeralda Guzman, Taylor Heald, Marla J. Keller, Steven L. Regen, Robin J. Shattock, and Betsy C. Herold

Abstract - Molecular umbrella compounds may function as novel topical microbicides to prevent human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and herpes simplex virus (HSV) infections. In a preliminary structure-activity investigation, one umbrella compound, designated Spm8CHAS, was identified which inhibited both HIV and HSV infections with no cellular toxicity. The objectives of the current studies were to define its spectrum of antiviral activity, characterize its mechanism of action, and explore the possibility of combining Spm8CHAS with HIV-specific reverse transcriptase inhibitors..

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Successful treatment of peritonitis by C. bertholletiaein a chronic kidney failure patient on continuousambulatory peritoneal dialysis after kidney rejection.

Abstract :Peritonitis is a common problem in patients undergoing peritoneal dialysis. However, peritonitis due toCunninghamella(C.) bertholletiae, a fungus of the class Zygomycetes, is rare. We present a case of fungal peritonitisin a patient on continuous ambulatory peritoneal dialysis due to kidney rejection. Direct examination of the patient’speritoneal fluid showed fungal hyphae, and the culture was identified as C. bertholletiae. A cumulative dose of 1,600 mgfluconazole was given to the patient intraperitoneally over a one-week period. When his condition had stabilised, oralantifungal treatment was administered for two weeks. After removal of the Tenckhoff catheter, the patient was dischargedwith arteriovenousfistulation for haemodialysis. Zygomycosis due to C. bertholletiaeis often fatal and non-responsive tosystemic antifungal therapy. This case is the first from India with a successful outcome, and highlights the importance ofearly detection and intervention for successful outcome of peritonitis caused by C. bertholletiae.

Protease inhibitor (PI) mediated defense in leaves and flowers of pigeonpea (protease inhibitor mediated defense in pigeonpea).

Abstract :More than 200 insect pests are found growing on pigeonpea. Insects lay eggs, attack and feed on leaves,flowers and developing pods. Plants have developed elaborate defenses against these insect pests. Thepresent work evaluates protease inhibitor (PI) based defense of pigeonpea in leaves and flowers. PIs inthe extracts of these tender tissues were detected by using gel X-ray film contact print method. Up tothree PIs (PI-3, PI-4 and PI-5) were detected in these tissues as against nine (PI-1ePI-9) in mature seeds.PI-3 is the major component of these tissues. Mechanical wounding, insect chewing, fungal pathogenesisand application of salicylic acid induced PIs in pigeonpea in these tissues. Induction was found to be localas well as systemic but local response was stronger than systemic response. During both local andsystemic induction, PI-3 appeared first. In spite of the presence and induction of PIs in these tendertissues and seeds farmers continue to suffer yield loses. This is due to the weak expression of PIs.However the ability of the plant to respond to external stimuli by producing defense proteins does notseem to be compromised. This study therefore indicates that PIs are components of both constitutive and inducible defense and provide a ground for designing stronger inducible defense (PIs or other insecttoxin based) in pigeonpea.

Small RNA profiles in soybean primary root tips under water deficit (DOI: 10.1186/s12918-016-0374-0)

Author - Dr. V. K. Hivrale 

Background - Soybean (Glycine max) production is significantly hampered by frequent droughts in many regions of the world including the United States. Identifying microRNA (miRNA)-controlled posttranscriptional gene regulation under drought will enhance our understanding of molecular basis of drought tolerance in this important cash crop. Indeed, miRNA profiles in soybean exposed to drought were studied but not from the primary root tips, which is not only a main zone of water uptake but also critical for water stress sensing and signaling.

Methods - Here we report miRNA profiles specifically from well-watered and water-stressed primary root tips (0 to 8 mm from the root apex) of soybean. Small RNA sequencing confirmed the expression of vastly diverse miRNA (303 individual miRNAs) population, and, importantly several conserved miRNAs were abundantly expressed in primary root tips.

Results - Notably, 12 highly conserved miRNA families were differentially regulated in response to water-deficit; six were upregulated while six others were downregulated at least by one fold (log2) change. Differentially regulated soybean miRNAs are targeting genes include auxin response factors, Cu/Zn Superoxide dismutases, laccases and plantacyanin and several others.